Server State

Until now endpoints were simple stateless functions that process requests into a responses. But for any serious application we need to be able to maintain state somewhere. In a real life application we need to have a place to store things like sessions, database connection pools, configuration etc. And we would rather not use global variables for this.

Tide gives us Server state to do just this. If you look at the definition of the Server struct you see that it has one generic type parameter called State. We’ve been using Server::new to construct our Server instances, which returns a server without state; Server<()>. But the Server type also has a Server::with_state constructor where you can pass in our own state instance when creating the Server. This State will then be passed to all endpoint handlers through the Request parameter.

Setup state for an application

To set up our application state we first need to have a type to store the application data that will be shared between requests.

struct AppState {
    pub datastore: Arc<AtomicU32>,

In this example we will share a simple counter. We use an Arc to make sure we can safely share this even when simultanious requests come in.

To set the state in the tide::server we need to use a different constructor than the server::new() we used previously. We can use server::with_state(...) to set up a server with state.

    let mut app = tide::with_state(AppState {
        datastore: Arc::new(AtomicU32::new(0)),

Accessing state

The state can then be accessed using the state method on your Request inside your endpoints;

async fn read_state(request: Request<AppState>) -> tide::Result {
        "datastore has been updated {} times",
async fn update_state(request: Request<AppState>) -> tide::Result {
    request.state().datastore.fetch_add(1, Ordering::SeqCst);

    Ok("datastore updated".into())

Server state limitations

As you can see in the previous example the State object does have some limitations. First of all Tide sets some trait bounds. The State needs to be Clone, Send and Sync. This is because it will be passed into all your endpoints, these might be running concurrently on different threads than where you created the State When accessing State in your endpoints it’s only available as a non-mutable reference.

To get around these limitations for our counter we used an AtomicU32 that provides the internal mutability for our counter and we wrapped it in an Arc to be able to copy it around.

In practice this is often not that much of a problem. Many database-access libraries for example already provide connection pools components that are written to be able to be passed around inside an application like this. point at an sqlx examle